Jump to content

Change
Photo

How Islamic inventors changed the world!

- - - - -

  • Please log in to reply
23 replies to this topic

#1
The Repentant

The Repentant
  • Members
  • 75 posts
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:Algeria

Current mood:

:salaam:



From coffee to cheques and the three-course meal, the Muslim world
has given us many innovations that we take for granted in daily life.
As a new exhibition opens, Paul Vallely nominates 20 of the most
influential- and identifies the men of genius behind them


Published: 11 March 2006

Posted Image
1 The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region
of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a
certain berry. He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record
of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay
awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in
Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. It was brought to
England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in
Lombard Street in the City of London. The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve
then the Italian caff and then English coffee.

Posted Image

2 The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to
see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the
10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He
invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in
window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set
up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word qamara for a dark or private room).
He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical
activity to an experimental one.

Posted Image

3 A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the
form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe - where it
was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century - and eastward as far as
Japan. The word rook comes from the Persian rukh, which means chariot.

Posted Image
4 A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer,
and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying
machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a
loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn't. But
the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and
leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of
silk and eagles' feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a
significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing -
concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would
stall on landing. Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named
after him.


Posted Image

5 Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why
they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had
soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs
who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil.
One of the Crusaders' most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did
not wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed's
Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing
Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.



Posted Image Posted Image
6 Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling
points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam's foremost scientist, Jabir ibn
Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic
processes and apparatus still in use today - liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation,
purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphuric
and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and
other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them is haram, or forbidden,
in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of
modern chemistry.



Posted Image
7 The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central
to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion
engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind,
it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for
irrigation. His 1206 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices shows he
also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first
mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics.
Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock.



Posted Image
8 Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating
material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or
whether it was imported there from India or China. But it certainly came to the West
via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw-filled
quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an
effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders' metal armour and was an
effective form of insulation - so much so that it became a cottage industry back home
in colder climates such as Britain and Holland.



Posted Image
9 The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe's Gothic cathedrals was an invention
borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used
by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more
complex and grander buildings. Other borrowings from Muslim genius included
ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe's castles were
also adapted to copy the Islamic world's - with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and
parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones.
Henry V's castle architect was a Muslim.


Posted Image

10 Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those devised
in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws,
forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are
recognisable to a modern surgeon. It was he who discovered that catgut used for
internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate
his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules. In the 13th
century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the
blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslims doctors also invented
anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck
cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today.


Posted Image

11 The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn
and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal
streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one
direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was
500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.



Posted Image
12 The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was
devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the
English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with
cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.


Posted Image

13 The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a
pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with
modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.



Posted Image
14 The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin
but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the
Muslim mathematicians al-Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825. Algebra was named
after al-Khwarizmi's book, Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, much of whose contents are still
in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later
by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci. Algorithms and much of the theory of
trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi's discovery of frequency
analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of
modern cryptology.

Posted Image

15 Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to
Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal
- soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal
glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn
Firnas - see No 4).


Posted Image

16 Carpets were regarded as part of Paradise by medieval Muslims, thanks to their
advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and highly
developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam's non-
representational art. In contrast, Europe's floors were distinctly earthly, not to say
earthy, until Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus
recorded, floors were "covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly
that the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring
expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of fish,
and other abominations not fit to be mentioned". Carpets, unsurprisingly, caught on
quickly.

Posted Image

17 The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods
when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous
terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn
on his bank in Baghdad.

Posted Image
18 By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a
sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, "is that the Sun is always vertical to a
particular spot on Earth". It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo.
The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they
reckoned the Earth's circumference to be 40,253.4km - less than 200km out. The
scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily
in 1139.

Posted Image

19 Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it
was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for
military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century
they had invented both a rocket, which they called a "self-moving and combusting
egg", and a torpedo - a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front
which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.


Posted Image
20 Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who
developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal
pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers
which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip.
"1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World" is a new exhibition
which began a nationwide tour this week. It is currently at the Science Museum in
Manchester. For more information, go to www.1001inventions.com.


http://news.independ...ticle350594.ece


#2
writersfreedom

writersfreedom

    The Beauty and The Prince

  • Super Moderators
  • 5,369 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:In My Husband's Heart

Current mood: Cheerful
Subhanallah I was abt to post a topic talkin abt the same thing but u beat me to it :D
thank u 4 this nice topic... smile.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt=':)' />

What can my enemies possibly do to me? My paradise is in my heart; wherever I go it goes with me, insepa­rable from me. For me, prison is a place of (religious) retreat; ex­ecution is my opportunity for martyrdom; and exile from my town is but a chance to travel ......

Posted Image

#3
^_^Chaouia^_^

^_^Chaouia^_^
  • Girls
  • 3,647 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Tkout,Algeria - Edmonton, Alberta

Current mood: Woot!
hmm have to disagree here, arabs have invented? arabs have learnt from the countries they went to when they were spreading islam. many things were taken from those countries and not given the proper acknowledgment to. like numbers from the amazigh, coffee from east africa, calender from the amazigh.. just a few,, yes maybe u can say that what muslims did but not arabs
TamattuT nnegh machi ghir i waghrom
Tattali zang u yis wa Traffed' agastur."
The shawi woman isn't just for house work
She rides the horse and carries a sword.

#4
writersfreedom

writersfreedom

    The Beauty and The Prince

  • Super Moderators
  • 5,369 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:In My Husband's Heart

Current mood: Cheerful

hmm have to disagree here, arabs have invented? arabs have learnt from the countries they went to when they were spreading islam. many things were taken from those countries and not given the proper acknowledgment to. like numbers from the amazigh, coffee from east africa, calender from the amazigh.. just a few,, yes maybe u can say that what muslims did but not arabs


u're wrong abt this cause have u ever heard of '' Ibn sina'' , ''Ibn nafisse'' ''Al bayrounie'' '' farrabie'' ... just as few examples.

#5
^_^Chaouia^_^

^_^Chaouia^_^
  • Girls
  • 3,647 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:Tkout,Algeria - Edmonton, Alberta

Current mood: Woot!
read other history books before islamic ones dear,, also many things from iraq were made by babylonians and assyrians which in deed are not arabs. calender goes back to before christ time ,, numbers from algerie in tassilli go back to 10,000 years ago now tell me arabs were in tassilli 10,000 years agora

phoenicians were the first in medicines, surgeries, and among other things that people claim were arab,

credit should go to the proper people and not grouped all as arabs because of the spread of islam to those countries in which the arabs learnt things from them..

would be like someone stealing ur idea get the idea?

#6
writersfreedom

writersfreedom

    The Beauty and The Prince

  • Super Moderators
  • 5,369 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:In My Husband's Heart

Current mood: Cheerful
well yea but u cant say that muslim inventors have no impact on the world. and I did read other books than Islamic ones but it is a known fact that muslims were the first in many things.

#7
Ithri

Ithri

    Mnarvi-DZ

  • Members
  • 1,191 posts
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:My Backyard

Current mood:
This is a strange, yet a very common, way to look at things Chaouia.

Technical (and at some extent spiritual) knowledge is the property of the whole humanity. And every people added something in this ever lasting human construction. And whenever a civilisation launches, it starts from where the most developed one stopped.

Nobody can claim they did something alone and from scratch without the help of anyone. So obviously Muslims haven't started off a blank sheet and developed the stuff. They of course relied first on the sciences of the people around them (Greeks, Persians, Indians, Africans, Chinese), translated all their works, corrected them, added to them and then started their own intellectual production. Just like China and India are taking over from the falling point of America...

And at the same time, nobody can claim that this or that civilisation gave nothing to the world; or like most orientalists dishonestly pretend that the newly European civilisation took over from Greek legacy as if the Islamic civilisation produced nothing. A dumb statement.

So what you are saying is not contradictory in any way with the saying that Muslims invented (and they did!) those stuff mentioned by The Repenter.
And what WF says about Muslims being the first in many things, of course they were but they should be thankful to the civlisations which came before, just like the West should be thankful to the Muslims...

As to the terminology, I see The Repentant used Islamic inventors in the title but Arabs in the text and WF uses Muslims. I personally prefer Islamic because that's what really defines the civilisation. The word doesn't imply all were Muslims. But we also could use Arab because all the intellectual production was made in the Arabic language regardless of the origin of the inventors.
Un homme se leva et demanda permission d'appeler les fidles la prire.
Permission lui ft donne:
- Vous pouvez les appeler, tant que vous les appelez Dieu et non vous-mme.
- Mais comment saurais-je la diffrence?
- Si a vous drange que quelqu'un d'autre les appelle Dieu, c'est que vous les appelez vous-mme.

#8
♥JaNNaH♥

♥JaNNaH♥

    Honorary Algerian

  • Moderators
  • 5,092 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:London

Current mood:
I'm glad you mentioned the chinese, because they were very advanced, and egyptions however they were not regarded as arabic at that time, I think it is good to remember everyone had contributed to the wealth of knowledge in the world.

I think it should say Islam too, turkish are not arab and sure persians must get fed up of being called arabs!!
Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return

Posted Image


#9
Quran reciter

Quran reciter
  • Girls
  • 703 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:my town

Current mood:
Huh !!! who said all that was invented by arabs in the first place???

the artical's titale is how islamic inventors changed the world not arabs!!!!

and even some of the arabs are not originaly arabs ... like sheikh Abd Alhameed Bnu Badees said :" i am a berber (amazigh), and i have been arabized by ISLAM" !

***
***
***


#10
♥JaNNaH♥

♥JaNNaH♥

    Honorary Algerian

  • Moderators
  • 5,092 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:London

Current mood:
oops I messed up my answer. It's used in the text QR

#11
- Mohammed

- Mohammed
  • Members
  • 496 posts
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:UK

Current mood:
Ithri hit the nail on the head. All civilisations have advanced the work of others to some degree, forming something new in the process.

I bought a book sometime ago (coincidentally authored by an Algerian) who talks about the contribution of the Islamic civilisation. Take a look at it if your interested.

Posted Image
A day spent without learning is a day wasted

#12
Quran reciter

Quran reciter
  • Girls
  • 703 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:my town

Current mood:

oops I messed up my answer. It's used in the text QR


lol jannah i know it's used in the text and i think i commented on that by saying :

and even some of the arabs are not originaly arabs ... like sheikh Abd Alhameed Bnu Badees said :" i am a berber (amazigh), and i have been arabized by ISLAM" !



#13
♥JaNNaH♥

♥JaNNaH♥

    Honorary Algerian

  • Moderators
  • 5,092 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:London

Current mood:
So I am arabized?

#14
writersfreedom

writersfreedom

    The Beauty and The Prince

  • Super Moderators
  • 5,369 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:In My Husband's Heart

Current mood: Cheerful

So I am arabized?


well I think so, when I was in Saudi school our teacher told us abt this hadit ''sayin of our beloved prophet'' which said that if u r a muslim & u speak arabic then u become arab by Islam it doesnt mean u stop bein wut u were b4 but just u become both now... smile.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt=':)' />

#15
Quran reciter

Quran reciter
  • Girls
  • 703 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:my town

Current mood:
OH!!! would you please sister WF report us the Hadith in arabic if u still remember it?? i wanna know more about it !

#16
Ithri

Ithri

    Mnarvi-DZ

  • Members
  • 1,191 posts
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:My Backyard

Current mood:

So I am arabized?


No obviously! Even if you spoke, wrote and read Arabic, you wouldn't be "arabised". Imam Ibn Badis talked of us Algerians because a majority of us became actually Arabs...


well I think so, when I was in Saudi school our teacher told us abt this hadit ''sayin of our beloved prophet'' which said that if u r a muslim & u speak arabic then u become arab by Islam it doesnt mean u stop bein wut u were b4 but just u become both now... smile.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt=':)' />


I too would be very interested in getting the original wording of this hadith and its references, because I never heard of it before and it looks so odd.

#17
writersfreedom

writersfreedom

    The Beauty and The Prince

  • Super Moderators
  • 5,369 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:In My Husband's Heart

Current mood: Cheerful
its in my saudi highschool books :D but I will look 4 it & post it inshallah smile.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt=':)' />

Edit : bent gave this hadit to us :

رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: "ألا إن العربية ليست بأب ولا بأم ولكن العربية اللسان، فمن تكلم العربية فهو عربي".

thnx bent smile.gif' class='bbc_emoticon' alt=':)' />


#18
Ithri

Ithri

    Mnarvi-DZ

  • Members
  • 1,191 posts
  • Gender:Male
  • Location:My Backyard

Current mood:
ok thanks to both

Here is what Al Albani said:


قال العلامة الألباني في السلسلة الضعيفة :
رقم 926 :
- " يا أيها الناس إن الرب واحد ، والأب واحد ، وليست العربية بأحدكم من أب ولا أم ، وإنما هي اللسان ، فمن تكلم بالعربية فهو عربي " .
ضعيف جدا .
رواه ابن عساكر ( 3 / 203 / 2 ) عن العلاء بن سالم : أخبرنا قرة بن عيسى الواسطي : أخبرنا أبو بكر الذهلي عن مالك بن أنس الزهري عن أبي سلمة بن عبد الرحمن قال : جاء قيس بن مطاطية إلى حلقة فيها سلمان الفارسي وصهيب الرومي وبلال الحبشي ، فقال : هذا الأوس والخزرج قد قاموا بنصرة هذا الرجل فما بال هذا ؟ فقام إليه معاذ بن جبل فأخذ بتلبيبه ، ثم أتى به النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأخبره بمقالته ، فقام النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قائما يجر ردائه حتى دخل المسجد ثم نودي : أن الصلاة جامعة ، وقال : ( ذكره ) ، فقام معاذ بن جبل وهو آخذ بتلبيبه ، قال : فما تأمرنا بهذا المنافق يا رسول الله ؟ قال : دعه إلى النار ، فكان قيس ممن ارتد في الردة ، فقتل . قلت وهذا سند ضعيف جدا أبو بكر الذهلي ( كذا الأصل ، والصواب الهذلي ) وهو متروك كما قال الدارقطني والنسائي وغيرهما وكذبه غندر . ثم رأيت الحديث في موضع آخر من " تاريخ ابن عساكر " ( 8 / 190 - 191 ) من هذا الوجه " وفيه " الهذلي على الصواب .
وقال : " هذا حديث مرسل ، وهو مع إرساله غريب ، تفرد به أبو بكر سلمى بن عبد الله الهذلي البصري ، ولم يرو ه عنه إلا قرة " .
قلت : ولم أجد من ترجمه ، فهذه علة أخرى . ومثله الراوي عنه : العلاء . وعلى الصواب ذكره ابن تيمية في " الاقتضاء " ( 169 - طبع الأنصار ) من رواية السلفي ، ثم قال ابن تيمية :" هذا الحديث ضعيف ، وكأنه مركب على مالك ، لكن معناه ليس ببعيد ، بل هو صحيح من بعض الوجوه " .


In English, very weak.

#19
writersfreedom

writersfreedom

    The Beauty and The Prince

  • Super Moderators
  • 5,369 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:In My Husband's Heart

Current mood: Cheerful

ok thanks to both

Here is what Al Albani said:



In English, very weak.


well that's not the hadith I learned in Saudi school but thnx anyways Ithri.

I really need to find my highschool books fast :D


#20
Quran reciter

Quran reciter
  • Girls
  • 703 posts
  • Gender:Female
  • Location:my town

Current mood:
Thanks for both of u sister Wf and bro Ithri

I actually never heard of this hadith before plus it's so weak!! good to know about it though .... weak hadiths r invading us lately!!!

Even the sheikh in the masjid said there is no harm to use weak hadiths ... if they contribute us to do good deeds (he gave an example about the hadith that says that reading surat alwaqi3a every night prevents us from pauverty "faqr" ) omg!!! am confused

Sorry for going out of the topic !!!